In a substitution level, teachers or students are only using new technology tools to replace old ones, for instance, using Google Docs to replace Microsoft Word. The task ( writing) is the same but the tools are different.


Though it is a different level, but we are still in the substitution mentality but this time with added functionalities.  Again using the example of Google docs, instead of only writing a document and having to manually save it and share it with others, Google Docs provides extra services like auto saving, auto syncing, and auto sharing in the cloud.


This is the level where technology is being used more effectively not to do the same task using different tools but to redesign new parts of the task and transform students learning. An example of this is using the commenting service in Google Docs, for instance, to collaborate and share feedback on a given task.


If you are to place this level in Blooms revised taxonomy pyramid, it would probably correspond to synthesis and evaluation as being the highest order thinking skills. “Redefinition means that students use technology to create imperceptibly new tasks. An example of redefinition is “when students connect to a classroom across the world where they would each write a narrative of the same historical event using the chat and comment section to discuss the differences, and they use the voice comments to discuss the differences they noticed and then embed this in the class website”.



Lesson: Writing a Short Paper 

Original Assignment: A hand written paper.

Substitution: A Word Processor replaces a Pen/Pencil in a Writing Assignment.

Augmentation: A Word Processor and text-to-speech function are used to improve the writing process.


The document created using the Word Processor and text-to-speech function is shared on a blog where feedback can be received and incorporated to help improve the quality of writing.



Instead of a written assignment, students convey analytic thought using multimedia


Lesson: Geography & Travel

Original Assignment:  An overview of a location consisting of hand written content supplemented with compiled cut-and-pasted magazine clippings.

Substitution: Use presentation software (like Powerpoint) to construct a presentation providing information about a selected locale.

Augmentation: Incorporate interactive multimedia – audio, video, and hyperlinks – in the presentation to give more depth and provide more engaging presentation.

Modification: Create a digital travel brochure that incorporates multimedia and student created videos.

Redefinition: Explore the locale with Google Earth; seek out and include interviews with people who have visited the local.

 Lesson: Understanding Shakespeare

 Original Assignment: Read a Shakespeare play in traditional printed format.

 Substitution: Read Shakespeare texts online.

 Augmentation: Use online dictionaries, study guides, history sites, to supplement reading. 

Modification: Use multimedia resources like text, audio, and video tools to jointly construct.

knowledge, learning, and understanding of a portion of a play, or a character, as a group project.

Redefinition: Answer the Question, ―What did the culture of the time have on the writing of

Shakespeare‘s plays my using a Concept Mapping tool and constructing a mind map demonstrating key elements through words and images.

 An Assessment Exercise

In this example, we take a simple form of assessment and evolve it into a collaborative group project.

 Original Assignment: Take a quiz, answers handwritten in a printed form.

Substitution: Distribute the quiz in a Word Processor file format and have student fill in answers on a computer.

Augmentation: Use a Google Form to deliver and complete the quiz. ―There is some functional benefit here in that paper is being saved, students and teacher can receive almost immediate feedback on student level of understanding of material. This level starts to move along the teacher / student centric continuum. The impact of immediate feedback is that students may begin to become more engaged in learning.―

Modification: As an alternative form of assessment, students could be asked to write an essay

around a relevant theme. The written essay could then be narrated and captured as vocal recording.


Redefinition: ―A classroom is asked to create a documentary video answering an essential question related to important concepts. Teams of students take on different subtopics and collaborate to create one final product. Teams are expected to contact outside sources for information.‖


Following are some example lessons, evolved through the SAMR model, that I have tried my hand at creating.  It‘s easy to get caught up in worrying about how effectively an approach constitutes

―modification or ―redefinition, but that‘s not the point of the exercise. To my way of thinking, it‘s more about understanding the difference between a just replacing or augmenting a ―paper lesson with a digital one and actually evolving it in a beneficial way and exploring new possibilities.


Lesson: Art/Painting

Original Assignment: Drawing a picture using traditional brush, paint, paper. Of course, there is a big difference between doing this ―by hand‖ in the traditional manner and doing it digitally – digitally is by no means ―better, it is just different and opens up some interesting possibilities.


Substitution: Use a digital drawing/painting program (like MS Paint) to draw/paint a picture.


Augmentation: Use a tool that allows the creation of your masterpiece to be ―played back (like

Educreations,  for example).


Modification: Pull a background image to use as a ―canvas – you could even scan something hand drawn and use that.


Redefinition: Create Artwork Collaboratively using a Collaborative Online Whiteboard

(like Twiddla or one of these other tools).


Lesson: Email Etiquette

Original lesson: Review printed copies of Email Etiquette concepts and guidelines.


Substitution: Students read an online article discussing Email Etiquette concepts and guidelines.


Augmentation: Student read an online article discussing Email Etiquette concepts and guidelines that includes links to examples, and offer comments online indicating their top 5 favorite tips.


Modification: Student watch a video discussing Email Etiquette concepts and guidelines and after reviewing the guidelines, they create a Twitter account and Tweet their top 5 tips.


Redefinition: Student watch the guidelines video, then assess examples of Email Etiquette

violations‘ and indicate which guidelines should be applied to correct/improve on the examples.


Lesson: Learning Fractions

 Original Assignment: Show understanding of fractions on a worksheet by coloring in blocks.

Substitution: Use an Excel Worksheet to let students ―color in‖ the blocks.

Augmentation: Use Google Sheet to let students ―color in‖ the blocks, where the teacher can offer feedback directly on Google Sheet.

Modification: Use Google Sheet and direct students to online examples and supplementary learning materials for areas that they might struggle with.

 Redefinition: Use a Fractions App instead (here‘s a handful of examples for iOS devices).

 Lesson: Phys Ed – Learning To Hit a Baseball Well

 Original Assignment: Learning how to hit a baseball by watching and listening to a Coach or Phys Ed instructor show you and then trying it yourself.

Substitution: The coach/teacher videos the training exercise and uses this as the lesson.

Augmentation: The coach/teacher videos the training exercise and provides links to other training content (videos and articles from other coaches, etc).

Modification: The coach/teacher videos the training exercise and ―flips‖ the lesson, having students watch it as homework, and using class time to practice and reinforce techniques.

Redefinition: Students watch video examples and practice the techniques, then the coach/teacher

videos them hitting balls and provides feedback about their technique.

Hopefully these example of lessons modified through the SAMR cycle help to encourage you to think about how you leverage technology to make some of your lessons more interactive, collaborative, and engaging with some of the many great technology tools available today!

 The Tech Classroom Workshop



 Remember: (know, identify,  list, memorize, recall,  name, record, define, repeat and


 Understand (discuss, describe, review, infer, interpret, draw, conclude, differentiate)

 Apply (develop, organize, practice, show, operate, dramatize, illustrate)

 Analyse (Compare, probe, contrast, categorize, differentiate, investigate, classify, experiment)

 Evaluate (conclude, measure, argue, decide, validate, consider, criticize, appraise, judge, assess)

 Create (produce, compose, predict, modify, tell, formulate, combine, relate, construct, organize, write, derive, propose)







Suggested tools but not limited to: videos, social media(facebook, instagram, twitter, snapchat, youtube), screencasts, movies, infographics, documentaries, group tech projects etc.

 Step 1 – Develop a Philosophy statement specifically for technology integration.

What are the purposes of my program?

Why do I think these purposes are worth including in the program?

 How are these purposes best accomplished in the context of my school/institution with my students/learners?

Step 2 – Develop the goals of your program.

What should my students know and be able to do as a result (at the end of) my program?

Note: Develop using national and international standards.

12 Ways Teachers are Using Social Media in the Classroom Right Now by Vicki Davis

  1. Tweet or post status updates as a class. Teacher Karen Lirenman lets students propose nuggets of learning that are posted for parents to read.
  2. Write blog posts about what students are learning. Teacher Kevin Jarrett blogs reflections about his Elementary STEM lab for parents to read each week.
  3. Let your students write for the world. Linda Yollis’ students reflect about learning and classroom happenings.
  4. Connect to other classrooms through social media. Joli Barker is fearlessly connecting her classroom through a variety of media.
  5. Use Facebook to get feedback for your students’ online science fair projects. Teacher Jamie Ewing is doing this now, as he shared recently.
  6. Use YouTube for your students to host a show or a podcast. Don Wettrick’s students hosted the Focus Show online and now share their work on a podcast.
  7. Create Twitter accounts for a special interest projects. My studentMorgan spent two years testing and researching the best apps for kids with autism (with the help of three “recruits”), and her work just won her an NCWIT Award for the State of Georgia.
  8. Ask questions to engage your students in authentic learning. Tom Barrett did this when his class studied probability by asking about the weather in various locations.
  9. Communicate with other classrooms. The Global Read Aloud, Global Classroom Project and Physics of the Future are three examples of how teachers use social media to connect their students as they collaborate and communicate.
  10. Create projects with other teachers. (Full disclosure: I co-created Physics of the Future with Aaron Maurer, a fellow educator I first met on Twitter.)Share your learning with the world. My students are creating anEncyclopedia of Learning
  11. Games with Dr. Lee Graham’s grad students at the University of Alaska Southeast. The educators are testing the games, and the students are testing them, too.
  12. Further a cause that you care about. Mrs. Stadler’s classes are working to save the rhinos in South Africa, and Angela Maiers has thousands of kids choosing to matter.

It’s in the Standards If you’re going to ignore social media in the classroom, then throw out and stop pretending that you’re 21st century. Stop pretending that you’re helping low-income children overcome the digital divide if you aren’t going to teach them how to communicate online.

Social media is here. It’s just another resource and doesn’t have to be a distraction from learning

objectives. Social media is another tool that you can use to make your classroom more engaging,

relevant and culturally diverse.

How to Use Social Media as a Learning Tool

Social media is an ingrained part of today‘s society. Our students are constantly on Instagram,

Facebook, Twitter, and likely many sites we‘re not hip enough to know about, and by reading this blog, you‘re interacting with social media at this very moment. If you want to bring the ―real world  into the classroom, consider integrating social media into your lessons.

Read Also: How to Ignite Your Child’s Creativity this Holiday

No Longer a Distraction

When used carefully, social media can be a useful tool rather than a distraction. A recent Edutopia blog post argues that using social media not only brings current technology to the classroom, but it also helps bridge the digital divide among lower-income students. These students may not have the constant access to social media that their counterparts do. Why should they be left behind as technology continues to march forward?

Education-based sites such as Edmodo, Edublog, and Kidblog provide alternative social media sites for posting status updates and announcements, blogging, and microblogging. But even the commercialized sites can be useful for demonstrating social media to students.

Create a Class Facebook Group

Facebook is known as a place to post status updates, announcements, photos, and video — all things that we likely use in our classes anyway. Create a Facebook group for each class, on which you can post assignments, make announcements, and remind students about important deadlines. Parents can also access the site to monitor what is going on in your class.

A Facebook group also creates a space for students to ask and answer questions. When students get home and begin working on their homework, they can post a question to the group‘s wall that either you or a classmate can answer. Since students often learn from others, having students share their questions, insights, or experiences with a topic can expand learning for other students. In short, it extends the classroom discussion beyond the classroom.

A Facebook group is also ideal for teachers using the flipped classroom. Post videos, photos,

documents, and other resources on the group‘s wall so that students can access them before class or while working on their assignments. Of course, content management systems can offer the same opportunities for announcements and resources. However, because many older students and parents already have Facebook on their phones

and tablets, they have constant access to course information without having to log in to a completely different system.

Start a Topical Twitter Feed

Like Facebook, Twitter offers a quick way to post class announcements and reminders as well as realtime information on class field trips (perfect for parents who can‘t tag along). Twitter also helps classes track information on a topic.

For instance, for a class discussing a current event or topic such as career ideas, Twitter can provide up-to-date information, eliminating the need for extensive research. By following the Twitter feeds of experts in the field or even hashtags focused on a current world issue, students can learn more about what is happening in the world around them. You can use this information in a variety of class discussions, research, and writing projects.

Twitter is made not only for reading, but also for responding. Encourage students to interact with others

via Twitter by posting their favorite quotes or facts from a particular lesson. Have them interact with experts by tweeting questions or comments. Many organizations offer Twitter chat sessions with which students can interact.

You can also read: Lagos State 2018/2019 Academic Calender & Holidays

Require Students to Blog

Student writing improves the more they do it. Instead of traditional writing projects, blogs create great opportunities for students to write and display their writing on a larger scale. The topic ideas are endless. Have students reflect on lessons or field trips, document research for a larger project; or review movies, books, or audio recordings. Ask students to illustrate their thoughts with photos or videos. By having students read each other‘s blog posts, they will create a stronger community with one another, discovering shared experiences and reactions. Because their work becomes part of the greater World Wide Web, students have increased motivation to carefully consider their language, spelling, and grammar usage as well as how they draw in outside information. In this vein, blogging can be an excellent segue into a discussion on plagiarism, voice, and writing style.

 Post Student Videos to YouTube

Like Facebook, YouTube is an excellent option for flipped classrooms in that students can watch

lectures and resources before entering the classroom. We have all probably shown a YouTube clip or two to illustrate a point in the classroom. Instead of watching material created by others, why not have students create their own material?

Similar to blogging, the opportunities for student-created video are plenty. Students will enjoy watching each other explain a concept, review a book or movie, stage their own interpretation of a scene from a play, create public service announcements, or report on news stories. Again, like blogging, since the material will be seen by a wider audience, students will be more apt to do their very best in creating a video, and they will enjoy being able to express their creativity as they connect more deeply with course material.

 Showcase Student Work on Instagram

If a picture is worth a thousand words, imagine what a carefully crafted class Instagram feed can say. Instagram can showcase student work by offering a place to feature student artwork or even interesting details about a student (i.e., a ―meet a student‖ photo journal). Start a scavenger hunt in which students post pictures of items focused on a certain letter or theme. Have students post photos of items related to their favorite book or historical figure.

 A Final World on Social Media

Privacy concerns are always an issue whether using social media for personal or educational use.

Please read all social media platforms‘ privacy pages, and ensure that your class feeds are set to private to protect students‘ work. Review your school‘s social media policy and if necessary, have parents sign consent forms for posting their child‘s work online. Furthermore, make sure that students are well versed in etiquette and other proper use of technology.


Compiled by: RHODA ODIGBOH – Cofounder, The Learning Craft (Curriculum Theorist & Learning Strategist)